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您的位置:听力库英语网 > 英语作文 > 英语语法文法

定语从句的缩略

有些定语从句可以缩略为各种短语,如分词短语、形容词短语、名词短语、介词短语及动词不定式短语等,且句意不受影响。我们称这一语言现象为定语从句的缩略。

研究定语从句的缩略有两点益处:一是丰富写作风格,提高语言表达能力,因为它能使人们学会用不同的方法来表达同一意思;二是提高阅读速度和阅读理解能力,因为在阅读中经常会遇到相当于定语从句的各种短语。

一、缩略为分词短语

有些定语从句可直接略去作主语的关系代词(who,which,that)和部分谓语(am,is,were等),从而使之缩略为现在分词短语或过去分词短语作后置定语。例如:

I know the men(who are)sitting in that car.我认识坐在那辆汽车里的那些人。

The boys helped the people(that were)hurt in the accident.那些男孩子救助了事故中受伤的人们。

The problem(which is)bothering everybody is the lack of money.令大家烦恼的问题是缺少资金。

The book(that has been)given to him is an English novel.给他的那本书是一部英文小说

有些定语从句不能按上述方法直接缩略,而需变动词为分词。这类定语从句一般缩略为现在分词短语,且在缩略时要考虑现在分词的时态和语态特征。例如:

The man who owns that car will be fined for illegal parking.→

The man owning that car will be fined for illegal parking.那辆汽车的主人将因违章停车而被处以罚款。

Bill,who had taken chemistry in high school,offered to help him.→

Bill,having taken chemistry in high school,offered to help him.比尔在中学学过化学,他主动提出帮助他。

Now,however,the furniture which they are carrying down to the truck feelsvery heavy.→

Now,however,the furniture being carried down to the truck feels veryheavy.然而,此时此刻,正在向卡车处搬运的家具令人觉得很重。

二、缩略为形容词短语

若定语从句为主系表结构,且表语由形容词短语充当,可直接略去作主语的关系代词和联系动词,从而使定语从句缩略为形容词短语作后置定语。例如:

The men(who were)responsible for the administration of the school refusedto consider the matter.该校行政工作负责人拒绝考虑此事。

We said goodbye to Mrs.Long,(who was)still busy at her chores.我们告别了仍在忙于家务的朗太太。

The puppy,(which was)too excited to be calmed,barked furiously.那条小狗激动不已,难以平静,狂叫个不停。

三、缩略为名词短语

由名词短语作表语的非限制性定语从句略去作主语的关系代词和联系动词便成为名词短语作同位语。例如:

You should have a talk with Mr.Worty,(who is)the adviser to students.你应该和沃尔斯先生——学生顾问谈一谈。

We finally reached Rio,(which was)the end of our journey.我们最后抵达里约——我们旅行的目的地。

四、缩略为介词短语

若定语从句为主系表句型,且表语为介词短语,可略去主语关系代词和联系动词,使之缩略为介词短语作后置定语。例如:

He spoke to the girl(who was)from New York.他与来自纽约的那个女孩谈了话。

此外,若定语从句中含动词has,have,had我们可以用介词with/without取替定语从句中主语关系代词和谓语动词,使定语从句缩略为介词with/without短语作后置定语。with适用于肯定的定语从句;without适用于否定的定语从句。例如:

The company wants men who have experience.→

The company wants men with experience.这家公司征聘有经验的职员。

My father went up to the woman who had a book under her arm.→

My father went up to the women with a book under her arm.我父亲朝臂下夹着一本书的那位妇女走去。

The teacher was looking for a rule that did not have an exception.→

The teacher was looking for a rule without an exception.老师在寻找一条无例外的规则。

五、缩略为动词不定式短语

某些含有情态动词或助动词的定语从句可缩略为动词不定式短语作后置定语。例如:

You need someone who can look after you.→

You need someone to look after you.你需要有人照料。

There are still many obstacles that must be overcome.→

There are still many obstacles to(be)overcome.还有许多障碍需要克服。

The question which will be discussed tomorrow is whether income tax shouldbe increased.→

The question to be discussed tomorrow is whether income tax should be in-creased.明天要讨论的问题是所得税是否应该提高。

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