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唐宋社会对杭州寺院的支持

唐宋社会对杭州寺院神祠的创建及发展都给予支持,其行为有相同之处。唐宋杭州寺院神祠得以创建及发展,其背后的城市环境因素及历史变化也有共同之处。唐宋帝王及皇室成员、地方官以外的官员及权贵,对寺院创建及发展的参与程度,要高于对神祠创建及发展的参与程度;总体而言,唐宋地方官对寺院创建及发展的参与程度,要低于对神祠创建及发展的参与程度。在杭州寺院神祠的创建和发展方面,唐宋帝王及皇室成员、地方官以外的官员及权贵对寺院的作用力度更大;而唐宋地方官对神祠的作用力度更大。

Tang and Song Societies helped Buddhist temples and shrines in Hang Zhou to establish or develop. They took some similar actions. Because of some same urban environment factors and historical changes, Buddhist temples and shrines in Hang Zhou established or developed. In Tang and Song Dynasties, the emperors, royal family members, azonic officials and dignitaries were more enthusiastic in the establishment and development of Buddhist temples than in those of the shrines in Hang Zhou; however, in general, the local government was contrary to them. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the emperors, royal family members and azonic officials played a greater role in the establishment and development of Buddhist temples than in that of the shrines in Hang Zhou, however, the local officials did a greater role in the case of shrines.

唐宋杭州寺院神祠的创建及发展,在不同层面的复杂现象及特征,其原因都可归结为皇权、等级制度、地方官员行政职责、佛教及民间信仰的功利性特征等因素,唐宋时期杭州的城市环境,以及唐宋时期发生的一些历史变化。唐宋时期杭州的城市环境,主要包括:钱塘江潮患危害甚大,地方官却难以有效控制;西湖成为杭州重要的灌溉及饮用水源;南宋时期,统治层内部及统治层与被统治层之间,存在大量利益诉求和矛盾冲突。而唐宋时期发生的一些历史变化,主要包括:社会经济的发展;杭州城市的发展及城市类型的变化;杭州人口因素的变化;宗教政策的调整;佛教的世俗化与平民化;两宋交替之际的战乱及宋室南迁的发生;政治军事局势的变动及统治危机的加深。这表明唐宋杭州寺院神祠的创建及发展,与城市、政治、经济、人口、宗教、民间信仰等社会现实息息相关。

In the Tang and Song dynasties, the complex phenomenon and characteristics in all aspects of the establishment and development of Buddhist temples and shrines in Hang Zhou, can all be attributed to the imperial power, hierarchy, obligation of the local officials, utilitarian features of the folk’s belief and Buddhism, the urban environment in Hang Zhou, as well as the historical changes of Tang and Song dynasties. The urban environment in Hang Zhou mainly included these the greatly harmful tidewater disaster of the Qian Tang River, which local officials couldn’t control efficiently; the West Lake in Hang Zhou became an important water source of irrigation and drinking; in the Southern Song Dynasty, there were many interest demands and conflicts between the ruling class and the ruled class, as well as among the ruling class. And the historical changes of the Tang and Song dynasties in Hang Zhou mainly included these the development of social economy; the urban development and the changes of urban types; the changes of the population factor; the adjustments of the religious policy; the secularization and popularization of Buddhism; wars in the transition of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties and the southward migration of the Song Court; the changes in the political and military situation and the increasing crisis of governance. All of these showed that, in the Tang and Song dynasties, the establishment and development of Buddhist temples and shrines in Hang Zhou were closely related to those social factors the city, politics, economy, population, religion, the folk’s beliefs and so on.

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