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唐代寺院创建的主体

在唐代,僧人是寺院的创建主体,官员、民众所占比例较小;而寺院的创建,主要依托于地方社会的力量。与唐代相比,吴越国时期,创建寺院的主要力量,由僧人变为国家及僧人;官员及民众创建寺院的数量,增加比较显著;新增了吴越诸王及王室成员作为寺院的创建者,以及吴越诸王作为旧寺院的扶持者。较之五代时期,在寺院的创建及发展方面,北宋僧人、官员的作用均有所增强;民众仍然发挥着作用。

In the Tang Dynasty, the main creators of Buddhist temples were monks,and the government officials and the common people only were only minimal. The establishment of Buddhist temples largely depended on the local society. During the period of the Wu Yue kingdom, the major power of establishing Buddhist temples shifted from monks to the state and monks. The number of Buddhist temples established by officials and common people was increasing sharply. The kings and the royal families of the Wu Yue kingdom were the newly added founders, and they also supported the development of Buddhist temples. Compared with the Five Dynasties, the effects of the Northern Song Dynasty monks and officials have been enhanced, the common people also played an important role.

到南宋时期,帝王、皇室成员对杭州寺院创建与发展的扶持,集中于与皇室有特殊关联的寺院,而其他寺院,只有少数能得到其扶持。权贵和官员是杭州寺院的主要创建者及寺院发展的推动者。在对寺院创建及发展的作用上,权贵与官员之间存在显著的差异。与北宋时期相比,权贵与官员的背景、官员身份、行为均更为复杂。僧人对南宋杭州寺院创建及发展的作用,因寺院类型不同而呈现出不尽相同的特点,僧人的具体方式,是多种多样的。南宋民众在杭州创建少量寺院,为其中一些寺院的维持及发展提供经济支持,还对寺院的修建进行捐助,并直接介入到寺院的创建及发展过程中。

When it came to the Southern Song Dynasty, emperors and royal family members gave aid to the establishment of Buddhist temples in Hang Zhou, especially those that had connection with royal families. But others could only obtain a little support. Dignitaries and officials were the main founders of Hang Zhou Buddhist temples and they also promoted the development of them. There were obvious differences between dignitaries and officials in the aspects of establishment and development of Buddhist temples. Compared with the Northern Song Dynasty, the background, the position and the deed of dignitaries and officials were much more complex. The ways and effects monks promoted the establishment and development of Buddhist temples in the Southern Song Dynasty were various according to different characteristics which presented by diverse types of Buddhist temples. The common people in the Southern Song Dynasty founded a few Buddhist temples and gave financial support to maintain and develop some of them. They not only donated to the founding, but also got involved to the progress of establishment and development.

唐代杭州神祠的创建者,以及神祠发展的推动者,都是地方官员;而且,相关神祗都主管事关经济发展、民生大计的江河湖泊。与唐代相比,吴越国时期,新建神祠及促进神祠发展者,由地方官变为吴越诸王。与五代时期相比,在神祠的创建及发展方面,北宋官员、民众的作用均有所增强;北宋朝廷虽然将杭州寺院神祠建立与发展的主导权让渡给了地方,但杭州寺院神祠的建立与发展,却不能完全脱离朝廷与帝后的支持。

In Hang Zhou, both the founders and the development promoters of shrines were the local government officials in the Tang Dynasty, and these related gods were primarily in charge of the rivers and lakes that were very important for the economic development and the livelihood of people. In the period of the Wu Yue kingdom, the kings replaced the local officials in Tang Dynasty as the founders and development promoters of the new shrines in Hang Zhou. Compared with the period of the Five dynasties, the effects both the officials and the public in the Northern Song Dynasty had on the establishment and development of the shrines were strengthened, and though the Northern Song Court transferred the dominance of establishment and development of Buddhist temples and shrines to the local government in Hang Zhou, it was still impossible for the local government to make a thorough break with the support of the court and emperors.

南宋时期,帝王及皇室成员对杭州神祠的依赖程度较低,对杭州神祠建立及发展施予的扶持力度较小;官员和权贵对杭州神祠创建及发展发挥的作用较大,但有时有其局限,地方官与其他官员、权贵之间的动机和背景有明显的不同;总体而言,民众对杭州神祠的创建及发展,有比较重要的作用,但有时难度较大,有时又没有机会发挥自己的作用;僧人也创立外郡行祠,但主要出于经济利益考虑。

In the Southern Song Dynasty, emperors and royal family members didn’t provide much support for the establishment and development of shrines in Hang Zhou, because they didn’t rely much on the shrines; officials and dignitaries played a more important role in the establishment and development of shrines in Hang Zhou, but sometimes there were some limitations. The intentions and backgrounds of the local officials were obviously different from other officials and dignitaries. Overall, the public played a very important role in the establishment and development of shrines in Hang Zhou, but sometimes it was quite difficult or chanceless for them to play the role; meanwhile, monks also established Wai Jun Xing Ci, but primarily out of the consideration of the economic interests.

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