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寺观祠庙的建立、维持及发展

The Establishment, Maintenance and Development of the Temples

第一部分 唐宋官吏推动杭州城寺观神祠的维持与发展。本章考察唐宋官吏向朝廷为寺观神祠申请赐额、封赠或更改寺院类型,向寺观神祠提供经济及物质支持,向寺观神祠提供文化支持,主持重修、重建寺观神祠暨新建寺观神祠设施等内容。唐宋官吏推动杭州城寺观神祠的维持与发展呈现五方面特征:一、成效较好。二、呈现出地方官吏与中央官吏的差异。三、体现出一般官吏与特殊官吏的差异。四、体现出寺观神祠之间的差异。五、受到杭州城城市环境的影响。

Part One is on how the Tang and Song officials promoted the maintenance and development of shrines in Hangzhou. The Tang and Song officials applied to the government for gift money, donation or changed the type the monastic closures. They provided financial, material and cultural support to the temple shrines, presided over the restoration and rebuilding of temples, monasteries and shrines. There are five characteristics. First, the results are better. Second, there are differences between local officials and central government officials. Third, there are differences between ordinary official and special officials. Fourth, there are differences between the temple shrines. Fifth, it is influenced by the urban environment of the city of Hangzhou.

第二部分 唐宋官吏与杭州城纪念性祠庙。本章考察唐宋官吏对杭州城纪念性祠庙所产生的影响,包括直接主持纪念性祠庙的创建,推动建立或帮助维持纪念性祠庙,自身成为纪念性祠庙的神主,与唐宋官吏相关的纪念性祠庙具有用于实施教化的功能、保存历史记忆的功能及其他特殊功能。本部分得出以下结论:一、与唐宋官吏有关的杭州城纪念性祠庙,在杭州城纪念性祠庙体系中占据重要地位,对后世产生了较大影响。二、与唐宋官吏相关的杭州城纪念性祠庙的创建、维持及发展,其影响因素众多。三、与唐宋官吏相关的杭州城纪念性祠庙,其神主的选择具有倾向性。四、总体而言,受到杭州城城市人口文化异质性的影响,与唐宋官吏有关的杭州城纪念性祠庙,其建立者、重修者及重建者身份多元化,神主的身份也多元化。

Part Two is on the Tang and Song officials and memorial temples in Hangzhou City. This chapter examines the impact of the Tang and Song officials on the memorial temples in Hangzhou City, which include the direct presiding the creation and maintenance of monumental shrines, their inclusion in Temple altars, the enlightenment function, the preservation function of historical memory and other special functions of the Tang and Song Officials commemorative shrines. This section draws the following conclusions. First, the Tang and Song Officials commemorative shrines in Hangzhou City occupy an important position in the commemorative shrines system, and had a greater impact on later generations. Second, there are many factors that impact the creation, maintenance and development of the Tang and Song Officials commemorative shrines. Third, the choice of God in the Tang and Song Officials commemorative shrines shows a bias. Fourth, influenced by the population and the cultural heterogeneity of the Hangzhou City, the identity of the creators and rehabilitators of the Tang and Song Officials commemorative shrines is diversified, and so is the identity of the altar gods.

第三部分 全文结语。在前五章研究基础上,本章对主要观点作一总结。本章认为:一、唐宋官吏以参与实践或成为文化资源的方式,对古代杭州城寺观祠庙的建立、维持及发展产生了深远的影响,这种影响体现在诸多方面。但不能忽略的是,外界因素会影响到唐宋官吏效应的发挥。二、唐宋官吏对古代杭州城寺观祠庙的建立、维持及发展施加影响的过程,体现出了六方面的基本特点。三、古代杭州城的城市环境,是唐宋官吏对杭州城寺观祠庙的建立、维持及发展施加影响的基本背景。最后,本章还就如何推进本文研究提出了一些设想。

Part Three is the conclusion. Based on the first five chapters, this chapter summarizes the main points. This chapter argues that First, the Tang and Song officials, either by direct participation or by becoming cultural resources, had a profound effect on the establishment, maintenance and development of the ancient temples in Hangzhou. This effect is reflected in many aspects, but it can not be ignored that external factors have affected the play of this effect. Second, there are six characteristics in the process of the officials’ influence on the establishment, maintenance and development of temples in the ancient city of Hangzhou. Third, the urban environment of the ancient city of Hangzhou is the background for officials’ influence on the establishment, maintenance and development of temples. Finally, the chapter provides some ideas for further research.

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