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唐宋官吏与古代杭州城寺观祠庙

Officials in the Tang and Song Dynasties and the Ancient Temples in the Hangzhou City

作为中国古代城市的信仰场所暨纪念场所,寺观祠庙在古代城市的政治、文化及精神世界中占据着重要地位。而中国古代城市寺观祠庙的建立、维持及发展,无疑是中国古代寺观祠庙研究的基础性问题之一。考察古代官吏对城市寺观祠庙的建立、维持及发展所产生的影响,以及这些作用过程所呈现出的特征,较为可行,且具有一定的学术价值。目前尚无以此为研究对象的专著出现,相关论文数量也不多,有较大的研究空间。结合本文被限定的研究方向以及相关城市、史料的状况,本文将考察唐宋官吏(含五代十国)对古代杭州城(包括位于城门内外的,钱唐、仁和二县辖内的若干地点)寺观祠庙建立、维持及发展所产生的作用,以及这些过程所呈现出的特征。

As places of worship in ancient Chinese cities, ancient temples occupy an important position in the city’s political, cultural and spiritual world. The establishment, maintenance and development of temples in ancient China cities is undoubtedly one of the basic issues in the researches on the temples of ancient China. A feasible approach is to examine the impact of city officials on the establishment, maintenance and development of ancient temples and the characteristics exhibited in the process. Currently, here is no monograph on this subject and the number of related papers is small. Therefore, some academic value and research space are expected. With regard to the defined direction of this research and the available historical data of related cities, this article will examine the roles of officials of Tang and Song Dynasties (including the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms) in the establishment, maintenance and development of temples in the ancient city of Hangzhou (including a number of locations within the jurisdictions of the Qian Tang County and the Ren He County, both inside and outside the city gate) and the characteristics exhibited in the process.

本文包括绪论及正文,其中正文又分为六章。绪论部分包括:一、选题缘起。论述选题的理由。二、相关概念的界定。对“唐宋官吏”、“古代杭州城”及“寺观祠庙”这三个基本概念进行界定和说明。三、学术史回顾。就中国古代官吏对寺观祠庙所施加影响的研究状况、古代杭州城寺观祠庙的研究状况这两个问题作学术史的细致回顾。

This article includes the introduction and the body, of which the body is divided into six chapters. Introduction section includes First, the origins of this topic, which discusses the reason for this topic. Second, the definition of the relevant concepts. The three basic concepts of “officials in the Tang and Song Dynasties”, “Ancient Hangzhou City” and “temples” will be defined. Third, a review of the academic history. A detailed review of the two issues in academic history will be made on the influence of ancient China officials on the temples and the research status in the ancient temples of Hangzhou City

第一章 古代杭州城概况。本章简要梳理古代杭州城在各个历史时期的发展概况,重点放在唐代及唐代以后。杭州城寺观祠庙,无疑处于杭州城这一城市环境中。杭州城是寺观祠庙产生、延续及发展的土壤。杭州城在唐五代宋元明清不同时期的发展状况,既产生了对寺观祠庙的需求,也为满足这种需求提供了条件。

The first chapter is an overview of the ancient city of Hangzhou. This chapter provides an overview of the development of the ancient city of Hangzhou in each historical period, with an emphasis on the Tang Dynasty and the periods after the Tang Dynasty. Temples in Hangzhou are no doubt in the urban environment. Hangzhou City is the soil for the origin, continuity and development of temples. The development of Hangzhou City in the different periods of the Tang Dynasty, the Five Dynasties, the Song, Ming and Qing Dynasties, has both created a demand for temples, and also provided the conditions to meet this demand.

第二章 唐宋官吏在杭州城建立寺观神祠。本章考察唐宋官吏在杭州城建立寺院、宫观及神祠的状况。总的来讲,唐宋官吏对杭州城寺观神祠的建立,发挥了比较明显的作用,影响持续的时间较长。唐宋官吏在杭州城建立寺观神祠,主要受三个因素影响:一是杭州城城市环境及城市特征,二是官吏群体自身的特点,三是社会氛围。

Chapter Two is on the establishment of temple shrines by Tang and Song officials in Hangzhou City. This chapter examines how the officials established monasteries, temples and shrines in Hangzhou. Generally speaking, the officials played an obvious role and had a long period of influence. Three factors are at work firstly, the urban environment and urban characteristics of the Hangzhou City, secondly, the characteristics of the official group; and thirdly, the social atmosphere.

第三章 唐宋官吏促成杭州城寺观神祠的建立。本章考察孟珙捐金买地帮助建寺,苏轼成为龙井、梵天、慧因三寺伽蓝,以及唐宋诸官吏成为神祠神主等情况。由孟珙的事例来看,唐宋官吏要依靠物质手段去推动寺院建立,并不容易。苏轼成为三座寺院的伽蓝神,实属必然,但能够发挥的作用却是有限的。唐宋官吏在去世后,以文化资源的方式推动寺观神祠的建立,主要集中于神祠。唐宋官吏作为杭州城神祠的神主,大多对后世产生了较大影响。唐宋官吏成为杭州城祠神的情况,体现出杭州城城市居民及外来人口在祠神选择方面的异质性。

Chapter Three is about how the officials in the Tang and Song dynasties promoted the establishment of temple shrines in the Hangzhou City. This chapter will cover the stories of how Meng Gong donated gold to help buy land and build temples, Su Shi was chosen as Garan for the Longjing Temple, the Brahma Temple and the HuiYing Temple, and various officials of the Tang and Song dynasties were chosen as altar god shrines. From the story of Meng Gong, it is not easy for the Tang and Song officials to rely on financial means to promote the establishment of the temple. It is inevitable that Sushi became the Garan for three monastic Buddhist Temples, but the role it played is limited. Where the officials of the Tang and Song dynasties, after their death, continued to promote the establishment of monasteries and shrines by becoming cultural resources is mostly in the shrines. The Tang and Song officials as ancestral shrines in the city of Hangzhou had a great impact on later generations. The fact that the Tang and Song officials became the ancestral shrines reflects the heterogeneity of Hangzhou residents and migrants in their choice of the god of temples.

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