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宋元时期名贤祠的特质

宋元时期名贤祠的特质

——以杭州西湖三贤堂为例

The characteristics of the Famous Saint Temple in the Song and Yuan Dynasties

--A Case Study of the Three-saint Temple of the West Lake in Hangzhou

目前学界对中国古代纪念性祠庙的研究比较薄弱。名贤祠是宋元时期纪念性祠庙的主要形式。本文选取杭州西湖三贤堂为个案进行历时性考察,以初步揭示宋元时期名贤祠的特质,具有一定的研究价值。本文认为:三贤堂的神主选择有比较严格的标准;教化是三贤堂的主要功能,该功能贯穿其创设、演变的全过程且日益突出;三贤堂创废的行为主体是地方官,国家政治则为决定性因素;三贤堂的神圣空间由神主生前活动场所与具体历史语境共同确定;三贤堂神圣意义的构建比较容易实现。

The research on the ancient Chinese memorial shrines has been inadequate. The Famous Saint Temple is the main form of memorial shrines in the Song and Yuan Dynasties. This paper makes a diachronic case study of the Three-saint Temple of the West Lake in Hangzhou in the hope of revealing the characteristics of the Famous Saint Temple in the Song and Yuan periods, thus of some research value. This paper argues that the choice of the ancestral saints for the Three-saint Temple requires stringent standards; enlightenment is the main function of the Three-saint Temple, which runs through the whole process of its creation and evolution and becomes increasingly prominent; local officials are responsible for the creation and abolition of the Three-saint Temple and the national politics is the decisive factor; the sacred space of the Three-saint Temple is jointly determined by the activities of the ancestral saints and the specific historical context; the establishment of the sacred significance of the Three-saint Temple is relatively easy.

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